At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. Reinforcement was typically at 300mm spacing in the raft, and arranged such that every 10lh bar in each direction was omitted, resulting in a series of "pour enhancement strips" throughout the raft at which 600 mm x 600 mm openings at regular intervals facilitated access and concrete placement. As it rises from a flat base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiraling pattern, reducing the tower’s mass as it reaches skyward. Strainstall have completed a six year monitoring contract on the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai - the tallest man-made structure ever built. The wind tunnel program included rigid-model force balance tests, a foil multi degree of freedom aero elastic model studies, measurements of localized pressures, pedestrian wind environment studies and wind climatic studies. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. The five (5) sets of outriggers, distributed up the building, tie all the vertical load carrying elements together, further ensuring uniform gravity stresses: hence, reducing differential creep movements. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. Structural System Description Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. By combining cutting-edge technologies and cultural influences, the building serves as a global icon that is both a model for future urban centers and speaks to the global movement towards compact, livable urban areas. Figure 1. The C80 concrete for the lower portion of the structure had a specified Young's Elastic Modulus of 43,800 N/mm2 (6,350ksi) at 90 days. These include a “sky-sourced” ventilation system, in which cool, less humid air is drawn in through the top of the building. The story of structural system selection and the structural system optimization is a … structural system of the Burj Khalifa acts like a single unit creating a tower that acts as one giant concrete beam cantilevering from the ground. The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region (with a seismic zone facior Z = 0.15 and soil profile Sc). Phase 4: 1 Borehole with cross-hole and down-hole gophysics; depth = 140m. Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. SOM applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all of the common central core and column elements. This system was introduced by Fazlur Rahman Khan while at the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), in their Chicago office. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. Each raft pour occurred over at least a 24 hour period. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. 2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BRIEF DESCRIPTION 2.1 General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. The geo-technical studies were peer reviewed by both Mr. Clyde Baker of STS Consultants, Ltd. (Chicago, IL, USA) and by Dr. Harry Poulos of Coffey Geosciences (Sydney, Australia). Outriggers at the mechanical floors allow the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. The potential for liquefaction was investigated based on several accepted methods; it was determined that liquefaction is not considered to have any structural implications for the deep seated Tower foundations. The raft was constructed in four (4) separate pours (three wings and the center core). The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large scale Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa the tallest skyscraper in the world in January 2004 and over the years, the building passed many important milestones to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Ontario (Figure 14). Keywords: architectural forms, Burj Khalifa, structural components, dynamic wind effects. Measures implemented included specialized waterproofing systems, increased concrete cover, the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled … Construction of the tower was started in 2004. Seismic loading typically did not govern the design of the reinforced concrete Tower structure. Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds. https://civilengineeringupdates.blogspot.com/2013/05/1.html The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash, 7% silica fume, and a water to cement ratio of 0.32. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. L-box, V-Box and temperature. Lateral load resisting system and floor framing system are the two major components of the superstructure of the Burj Khalifa Tower and these systems are discussed below. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. The structural system employed for Burj Khalifa can be called as the Buttressed Core System. At each setback, the building's width changes. The whole system is constructed by using high performance concrete wall. Burj Khalifa in Dubai. It consists of series high-strength reinforced concrete walls: a strong central core is connected to three building wings. The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January, 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world. The structural system can be described as a "buttressed" core (Figures 1, 2 and 3). The massing of the 828-meter (2,717-foot) tall Burj Khalifa is organized around a central core with three wings, each consisting of four bays (see Figure 2). In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. 1.2 '' ) 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes, office spaces and hotel rooms and lobbies meter testing ) depths. 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